Java and Sumatra segments of the Sunda Trench: Geomorphology and geophysical settings analysed and visualized by GMT

Polina Lemenkova

Abstract


The paper discusses the geomorphology of the Sunda Trench, an oceanic trench located in the eastern Indian Ocean along the Sumatra and Java Islands of the Indonesian archipelago. It analysis difference in depths and variation in slope steepness between the two segments of the trench: southern Java transect (108.8°E 10.10°S - 113.0°E 10.75°S) and northern Sumatra transect (97.5°E 1.1°S - 101.0°E 5.5°S). The maps and geomorphological modelling were plotted using Generic Mapping Tools (GMT). The data include high-resolution grids on topography, geology, geodesy and geophysics: GEBCO, EGM2008 EGM-2008, GlobSed. The results include modelled segments, slope gradients, and cross-section profiles. The geological processes take place in the Indian Ocean at different stages of its evolution and influence the nature of the submarine geomorphology and geomorphology of the trench that differs in two segments. Java segment has a bell-shaped data distribution in contrast to the Sumatra with bimodal pattern. Java segment has the most repetitive depths at -2,500 to -5,200 m. Sumatra transect has two peaks: 1) a classic bell-shaped peak (-4,500 m to -5,500 m); 2) shelf area (0 to -1,750 m). The data at middle depths (-1,750 to -4,500 m) have less than 300 samples. The most frequent bathymetry for the Sumatra segment corresponds to the -4,750 m to -5,000 m. Comparing to the Sumatra segment, the Java segment is deeper. For depths > -6,000 m, there are only 138 samples for Sumatra while 547 samples for Java. Furthermore, Java segment has a more symmetrical geometric shape while Sumatra segment is asymmetric, one-sided. The Sumatra segment has a steepness of 57.86° on its eastern side (facing Sumatra Island) and a contrasting 14.58° on the western part. The Java segment has a steepness of 64.34° on its northern side (facing Java Island) and 24.95° on the southern part (facing the Indian Ocean). The paper contributes to the studies of the submarine geomorphology in Indonesia.

Key words: Submarine Geomorphology, GMT, Sunda Trench, Indian Ocean, geology, cartography, mapping

© 2020 Serbian Geographical Society, Belgrade, Serbia.
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Serbia


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