Assessment of the water quality in the MoraÄa River Basin (Montenegro) using water quality index

Miroslav Doderović, Ivan Mijanović, Dragan Burić, Milan Milenković

Abstract


In this paper, the water quality of the MoraÄa River and its main tributaries (the Zeta and the Cijevna) were analyzed, using the Water Quality Index (WQI) methods. Data from 12 hydrological stations (HS) from 2010 to 2018 were used. The analysis included ten parameters of physic, chemical and microbiological water quality: oxygen saturation, BOD5, ammonium ion, pH value, total nitrogen oxides, orthophosphates, suspended solids, temperature, electrical conductivity and coliform bacteria. Calculations for all 12 HS were made using the Serbian Water Quality Index (SWQI). The results of the research showed that the general situation is not discouraging, because the SWQI values ranged from 73-97, which according to the categorization of water quality corresponds to the classes good, very good and excellent. The only exceptions were the two measuring stations in the lower course of the MoraÄa River (City Collector and Grbaci). During the entire observed period, the water quality was the worst on the profile of the City Collector (SWQI between 39 and 71) on MoraÄa River. Also, downstream on MoraÄa River, on HS Grbavci for 2015, the average annual value of SWQI was 70, which according to the gradation corresponds to the class of poor quality. The biggest sources of pollution were municipal wastewaters, followed by agricultural activities and illegal garbage disposal both along the stream and in the river itself. It follows that the lower part of the MoraÄa River was the most polluted in the observed basin. This is a serious problem, especially since it is a part of the MoraÄa River that flows through the most populated and most agriculturally active parts of Montenegro (Podgorica, Zeta Plain, LjeÅ¡kopolje). Therefore, it is necessary to take adequate measures as soon as possible, which primarily relate to the introduction of wastewater treatment technology and to educate population about the importance of river water conservation.

Key words: SWQI, water pollution classes, MoraÄa River Basin, Montenegro

© 2020 Serbian Geographical Society, Belgrade, Serbia.
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Serbia


Full Text:

PDF

References


Abuzaid, A.S. (2018). Evaluating surface water quality for irrigation in Dakahlia Governorate using water quality index and GIS. Journal of Soil Sciences and Agricultural Engineering, Mansoura University, 9(10), 481-490.

Almeida, M.A.B. & Schwarzbold, A. (2003). Seasonal evaluation of the quality of the water in Arroio da Cria, Montenegro, RS, applying a water quality index (WQI). (In Portuguese: Avaliação Sazonal da Qualidade das Ãguas do Arroio da Cria Montenegro, RS com Aplicação de um Ãndice de Qualidade de Ãgua (IQA)). Revista Brasileira de Recursos Hídricos, 8(1), 81–97. DOI: 10.21168/rbrh. v8n1.p81-97.

Agencija za zaštitu prirode i životne sredine Crne Gore (2020). Informacija o stanju životne sredine u Crnoj Gori za 2019. godinu. Agencija za zaštitu prirode i životne sredine Crne Gore, Podgorica, 1-88.

Agencija za zaštitu prirode i životne sredine Crne Gore (2017). Informacija o stanju životne sredine u Crnoj Gori za 2016. godinu. Agencija za zaštitu prirode i životne sredine Crne Gore, Podgorica, 1-325.

Babić, G., Vuković, M., Voza, D., Takić, L. & Mladenović-Ranisavljević, I. (2019). Assessing Surface Water Quality in the Serbian Part of the Tisa River Basin. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 28(6), 4073-4085. https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/95184.

Boyacioglu, H. (2007). Development of a water quality index based on a European classification scheme. Water SA, 33(1), 101-106. https://www.ajol.info//index.php/wsa/article/view/47882.

Burić, D., Ducić, V. & Mihajlović, J. (2014). The climate of Montenegro: Modificators and types - part two. Bulletin of the Serbian Geographical Society, 94(1), 73-90. https://doi.org/10.2298/GSGD 1401073B.

Cude, C.G. (2001). Oregon Water Quality Index: A tool for evaluating water quality management effectiveness. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 37(1), 125-137. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2001.tb05480.x.

Drecun, Ä., Knežević, B., Filipović, S., Petković, S., Petković, S. & Nedić, D. (1985). BioloÅ¡ko-ribarstvena istraživanja rijeke MoraÄe, njenih pritoka i RikavaÄkog jezera. Titograd: Agroekonomski institute.

Dukić, D. & Gavrilović, Lj. (2008). Hidrologija. Beograd: Zavod za udžbenike.

Djurašković, P. (2010). Water Quality Index - WQI as Tool of Water Quality Assessment. BALWOIS 2010 – Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia. http://balwois.com/wp-content/uploads/old_proc/ffp-2026.pdf.

Garcia, C.A.B., Silva, I.S., Mendonça, M.C.S. & Garcia, H.L. (2018). Evaluation of Water Quality Indices: Use, Evolution and Future Perspectives. Advances in Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 18. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.79408.

Godišnji izvještaji (2010-2018). Zavod za hidrometeorologiju i seizmologiju Crne gore. http://www. meteo.co.me/misc.php?text=57&sektor=3.

Hurley, T., Sadiq, R. & Mazumder, A. (2012). Adaptation and evaluation of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment water quality index (CCME WQI) for use as an effective tool to characterize drinking source water quality. Water Research, 46(11), 3544–3552. https://doi.org /10.1016/j.watres.2012.03.061.

HrvaÄević, S. (2004). Resursi povrÅ¡inskih voda Crne Gore. Podgorica: "Elektroprivreda Crne Gore" A.D. NikÅ¡ić.

Hernea, C. & Teche-Constantinescu, A.M. (2013). Variability of groundwater quality parameters from periurban area of Timisoara (Romania). Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 14(1), 64–70.

Јаkоvljеvić, D. (2012). Serbian and Canadian Water Quality Index of Danube River in Serbia. Journal of the Geographical Institute "Jovan Cvijić" SASA, 62(3), 1–18. https://doi.org /10.2298/IJGI1203001J.

Josimov-DunÄ‘erski, J., Savić, R., Grabić, J. & Blagojević, B. (2016). Kvalitet vode Dunava na panonskom delu toka kroz Srbiju. Letopis nauÄnih radova/Annals of agronomy, 40(1), 8-14. http://polj.uns.ac.rs/sites/default/files/letopis-naucnih-radova/2Josimov-Dundjerski%20et% 20al.%20O2016%20Ann%20Agron.%2040%2C%208-14.pdf.

Kawo, N.S. & Karuppannan, S. (2018). Groundwater Quality Assessment Using Water Quality Index and GIS Technique in Modjo River Basin, Central Ethiopia. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 147, 300-311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2018.06.034.

Khan, H., Khan, A.A., Hall, S. (2005). The Canadian Water Quality Index: a tool for water resources management, Proceeding of the MTERM International Conference (06 – 10 June), AIT, Thailand. 2005. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242689965.

Kolarević, S., KraÄun-Kolarević, M., Jovanović, J., Ilić, M., Paunović, M., Kostić-Vuković, J. et al. (2019). Microbiological Water Quality of Rivers in Montenegro. In: PeÅ¡ić V., Paunović M., Kostianoy A. (eds) The Rivers of Montenegro. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, 93, 135-155. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2019_420.

Liou, SM., Lo, SL. & Wang, SH. (2004). A Generalized Water Quality Index for Taiwan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 96, 35–52. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EMAS. 0000031715.83752.a1.

Lopes, F.B., Teixeira, A.S., Andrade, E.M., Aquino, D.N. & Araújo, L.F.P. (2008). Map of Acaraú River water quality by the use of WQI and GIS. (In Portuguese: Mapa da qualidade das águas do rio Acaraú, pelo emprego do IQA e Geoprocessamento). Revista Ciência Agronômica, 39(3), 392–402.

Lumb, A., Halliwell, D. & Sharma, T. (2006). Application of CCME Water Quality Index to Monitor Water Quality: A Case Study of the Mackenzie River Basin, Canada. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 113, 411–429. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-005-9092-6.

Lumb, A., Sharma, T.C. & Bibeault, J.F. (2011). A review of genesis and evolution of water quality index (WQI) and some future directions. Water Quality Exposure and Health, 3, 11–24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-011-0040-0.

Milijašević Joksimović, D., Gavrilović, B. & Lović Obradović, S. (2018). Application of the Water Quality Index in the Timok River Basin (Serbia). Journal of the Geographical Institute "Jovan Cvijić" SASA, 68(3), 333–344. https://doi.org/10.2298/IJGI180610007M.

Mladenović-Ranisavljević, I.I. & Ţerajić, S.A. (2018). Comparison of different models of water quality index in the assessment of surface water quality. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 15(1),665-674. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-017-1426-8.

Mititelu-IonuÅŸ, O. (2010). Water Quality Index -Assessment method of the Motru river water quality (Oltenia, Romaia). University of Craiova, Series: Geography, 74-83. https://www. researchgate.net/publication/281863374.

Morse, J.C., Bae, Y.J., Munkhjargal, G., Narumon, S., Tanida, K., Vshivkova, T.S., Wang, B., Yang, L. & Yule, C.M. (2007). Freshwater biomonitoring with macroinvertebrates in East Asia. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5(1), 33–42. https://doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2007)5 [33:FBWMIE]2.0.CO;2.

Mohiuddin-Farooqui, K., Kumar-Sar, S. & Diwan, V. (2020). Investigation of water quality in Ambur city by water quality indexing. Holistic Approach Environ, 10(2020) 2, 48 – 52. https://doi.org/10.33765/thate.10.2.4.

Rocha, F.C., Andrade, E.M. & Lopes, F.B. (2015). Water quality index calculated from biological, physical and chemical attributes. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187, 4163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-4163-1.

Sasakova, N., Gregova, G., Takacova, D., Mojzisova, J., Papajova, I., Venglovsky, J., Szaboova, T. & Kovacova, S. (2018). Pollution of Surface and Ground Water by Sources Related to Agricultural Activities. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 2(42), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3389/ fsufs.2018.00042.

Sutadian, A.D., Muttil, N., Yilmaz, A. G. & Perera, B. J. C. (2015). Development of river water quality indices—a review. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 188 (58), 29. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s10661-015-5050-0.

Vukašinović-Pešić V., Blagojević N., Savić A., Tomić N. & Pešić V. (2019). The Change in the Water Chemistry of the Rivers of Montenegro over a 10-Year Period. In: Pešić V., Paunović M., Kostianoy A. (eds) The Rivers of Montenegro. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, 93, 83-109. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/698_2019_417.

Walker, D., Jakovljević, D., Savić, D. & Radovanović, M. (2015). Multi-criterion water quality analysis of the Danube River in Serbia: A visualisation approach. Water Research, 79, 158–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2015.03.020.

Yisa, J. & Jimoh, T. (2010). Analytical studies on water quality index of River Landzu. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(4), 453–458. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajassp.2010.453.458.

Yan, J., Liu, J. & Ma, M. (2014). In situ variations and relationships of water quality index with periphyton function and diversity metrics in Baiyangdian Lake of China. Ecotoxicology, 23(4),495-505. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-014-1199-5.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.